Everything about Termination Policy in India as per Indian Labour Laws

Termination rules for employees‘ will always be a daunting term for any employee. An employeersquo’s livelihood is dependent upon them being in employment and earning their monthly salary, and if that very livelihood is taken away, it can cast a gloom in their lives.

However, termination of employment can be for various reasons, and a company will and should always have suitable reasons for taking such decisions.

Fortunately, we do not have a ‘hire and fire’ policy in India, so there couldn’t be a termination without notice in India, unlike the West. Employers need to follow certain procedures under the law before terminating an employee’s service, and in some instances, even pay compensation. They do need to follow Indian Labour laws for Termination of Employment. 

In this article, we will try and set down the manner and procedure for termination of service, and the monetary entitlements thereto.

‘Workman’ and ‘Non-workman’

Employees in India are generally categorized as a ‘workman’ or a non-workman. The term ‘workman’ has been defined under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (“ID Act”), and would inter-alia mean all persons employed in any industry but does not include an employee who is in a managerial, administrative or supervisory role. Apart from the definition under the ID Act, there is no set formula to distinguish between a workman and a non-workman, and the position has been tested and established through various judgments, depending upon the nature of work being carried out by an employee.

An employee who is considered to be a workman will be governed by the ID Act, and their termination of service will have to be in accordance with the provisions of the ID Act.

Types of Termination of employment

Termination of employment may take place due to misconduct, discharge or retrenchment.


Termination of employment can be for misconduct, for which the employer is required to conduct disciplinary proceedings. The procedure to terminate an employee in India, for conducting a disciplinary proceeding has been set out under the law. It includes constituting and having a disciplinary panel, serving a show cause notice to the errant employee, and giving the employee a reasonable chance to put forth his defense. Proceedings have to be conducted in a fair manner, keeping in mind principles of natural justice.

In some cases, the outcome of the disciplinary proceeding may justify dismissal without notice, and any compensation. Under law, the term misconduct provides a list of circumstances and events which would amount to misconduct. It is an inclusive list, and hence, employers have the right to include in their company policies/ service rules, such other events, as it may deem fit, which would in their line of business, amount to misconduct. Misconduct includes wilful insubordination or disobedience; theft, fraud or dishonesty; wilful damage or loss of employer’s property; bribery; habitual lateness or absence; striking unlawfully and sexual harassment.

The aforesaid procedure for termination will apply to all employees whether workman or non-workman.


The termination of employment of employees who are not workman are governed by the notice period in their employment contract, and the shops and establishment act (“S&E’”) of the State in which they work. Generally, the State S&E’s provide for at least one month’s notice of termination, or pay in lieu of termination, and in some instances, termination needs to be with cause, and in some other cases, the employer needs to pay compensation for terminating the employment. The notice of dismissal under an employment contract should not be less favourable than what is prescribed under law.


The Industrial Dispute Act sets out the steps to be undertaken for retrenchment. The term retrenchment has been defined to mean termination by the employer of employment of a worker for any reason, other than disciplinary grounds, with certain exceptions.

An employer who proposes to retrench a workman, who have been continuously employed for more than one year, must give one month’s notice (together with the reason for the retrenchment) or pay in lieu of such notice to the workman. The employer must also inform the local labour authorities of the retrenchment within a stipulated time frame.

Rules for Retrenchment Compensation

Additionally, employers are also obliged to apply the “last in-first out” rule in selecting the workman for retrenchment except for reasonable cause. A retrenched workman is entitled to retrenchment compensation as per the provisions of the ID Act, which is calculated at the rate of 15 days wages for every year of continuous service. Certain establishments (factories, mines, plantations) employing over 100 workers may not be retrenched unless three months’ written notice, stating reasons for the retrenchment, or pay in lieu of notice, is given to the worker. Furthermore, prior approval from the relevant governmental authority must be taken before the retrenchment is made.

Severance Pay

Upon termination of employment of any employee, the employer is required to clear all dues, which are payable to the employee at the time of the termination. Some of these payments are as follows:

  1. Notice pay, where notice of termination has not been given;
  2. Salary for the days worked, but not paid for, during the month where the employee has been terminated;
  3. Payment of gratuity for employees who have completed at least 5 years of service, in terms of the Payment of Gratuity Act 1972. This act is applicable to establishments which have 10 or more employees. The gratuity is calculated at 15 days salary for every completed year of service;
  4. Leave encashment, for the leaves accrued, but not used by the exiting employee;
  5. Statutory bonus, if the employee is eligible for the same. Employees who are earning up to Rs. 10,000 per month and who has worked in an establishment for not less than 30 working days in a financial year will be entitled to statutory bonus under the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965;
  6. Retrenchment compensation, if the employee is a workman, and his services have been retrenched;
  7. Such other dues that may have been contractually agreed between the employer and the employee, or is payable under the employer’s company policies;
  8. Assist the employee in making applications to the appropriate authority, for withdrawal of the provident fund dues, accumulated to the credit of the existing employee.

There may be other dues payable, and such will vary from employment to employment.

Source sheroes.com

Establishments other than the factories, mines and plantations referred to above are required to provide the retrenched workers who have been in continuous service for at least one year (ie, 240 days) one months’ notice in writing indicating the reasons for retrenchment or pay salary in lieu thereof; and retrenchment compensation at the rate of 15 days average pay for every completed year of continuous service or any part thereof in excess of six months. Additionally, all establishments including are required to follow the ‘last in, first out’ rule or record reasons for deviating from this rule when retrenching workers.Employee protections

In what circumstances are employees protected from dismissal?

Women employees who are on maternity leave cannot be terminated from employment during their maternity leave, in accordance with the Maternity Benefits Act, 1961. Further, employees categorised as ‘workers’ cannot be terminated from employment during the adjudication of an industrial dispute, in accordance with the Industrial Disputes Act.Mass terminations and collective dismissals

Are there special rules for mass terminations or collective dismissals?

No, there are no special rules in relation to mass termination or collective dismissals. However, the Industrial Disputes Act prescribes a specific process that has to be adhered to when an establishment is be permanently closed down and the workers are being terminated.Class and collective actions

Are class or collective actions allowed or may employees only assert labour and employment claims on an individual basis?

Typically, class or collective actions are asserted through trade unions on behalf of a category of employees and not by individual employees.Mandatory retirement age

Does the law in your jurisdiction allow employers to impose a mandatory retirement age? If so, at what age and under what limitations?

Yes, employers are permitted to contractually agree to a mandatory retirement age with employees. However, there is no statutory retirement age that has been prescribed. Typically, the retirement age is between 58 to 60 years.

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